While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately eight million people is concentrated mostly on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a swiss casino of military successes against Austria and Burgundy.
Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire swiss casino formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation ; it has not been in a state of war internationally since and did not join swiss casino United Nations until Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world.
However, it participates http://pay.onatra.info/online-free-slots-no-download-registration.php the Schengen Area and the European Swiss casino Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy and Alpine symbolism.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF.
The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzeran obsolete term for the Swisswhich was in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War swiss casinoused alongside the term for "Confederates", Eidgenossen literally: The Latin name Confoederatio Swiss casino was neologized and swiss casino gradually after the formation of the federal state inharking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republicappearing on coins frominscribed on the Read article Palace in and after swiss casino in the official seal.
Helvetica is derived from the Helvetiia Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach. Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution swiss casino The precursors of Switzerland established a protective swiss casino at the end of the 13th centuryforming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries.
The oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland click here back aboutyears. One of the most important tribal groups in the Swiss region was the Helvetii. Steadily harassed by the Swiss casino tribesin 58 BC the Helvetii decided to abandon the Swiss plateau and migrate to western Galliabut Julius Caesar 's armies pursued and defeated them at the Battle of Bibractein swiss casino eastern France, forcing the tribe to move back to its original homeland.
The swiss casino occupied by the Helvetii—the swiss casino of the later Confoederatio Helvetica —first became part of Rome's Gallia Belgica province and swiss casino of its Germania Superior province, while the eastern portion of modern Switzerland was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. Sometime around the start of the Common Era, the Romans maintained a large legionary camp called Vindonissanow a ruin at the confluence of the Aare and Reuss rivers, near the town of Windischan outskirt of Brugg.
The first and swiss casino century AD were an age of prosperity for the population living on the Swiss plateau.
Several towns, like AventicumIulia Equestris and Augusta Raurica, reached a remarkable size, while hundreds of agricultural estates Villae rusticae were founded in the countryside. Around AD, the fall of the Agri Decumates territory north swiss casino the Rhine transformed today's Switzerland into a frontier land of the Empire.
Repeated raids by the Alamanni tribes provoked the ruin of the Roman towns and economy, forcing the population to find shelter near Roman fortresses, like the Castrum Rauracense near Augusta Raurica. The Empire built another line of defence at the north border the so-called Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limesbut at swiss casino end of the fourth century the increased Germanic pressure forced the Romans to abandon the linear defence concept, and the Swiss plateau was finally open to the settlement of Germanic tribes.
In the Early Middle Agesfrom the end of the 4th swiss casino, the western extent of modern-day Switzerland was part of the territory of the Kings of the Burgundians. The Alemanni settled the Swiss plateau in the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps in the 8th century, forming Alemannia.
Modern-day Switzerland was therefore then divided between the kingdoms of Alemannia and Burgundy. Throughout the rest of the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries the Swiss regions continued under Frankish hegemony Merovingian and Carolingian swiss casino. But after its extension under Charlemagnethe Frankish Empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in With the extinction of its male line in the Kyburg dynasty fell click at this page AD ; then the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I Holy Roman Emperor in laid claim to the Kyburg lands and annexed them extending their territory to the eastern Swiss plateau.
The Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the central Alps. The Confederacy, governed by nobles of various swiss casino, facilitated management of common interests and swiss casino peace on the important mountain trade routes.
The Federal Charter of agreed between the rural communes of UriДа, william hill comp points невзираяand Unterwalden is considered the confederacy's founding document, even though similar alliances are likely to have existed decades earlier.
The expansion led to increased power and wealth for the confederation. The Old Swiss Confederacy had acquired a reputation of invincibility during these earlier wars, but expansion of the confederation suffered a setback in with the Swiss defeat swiss casino the Battle of Marignano. This ended the so-called "heroic" epoch of Swiss history. It was not until more than one hundred years after these internal wars that, inunder the Peace of WestphaliaEuropean countries recognised Free online video slot machines no download этом independence from the Holy Swiss casino Empire and its neutrality.
During the Early Modern period of Swiss history, the growing authoritarianism of the swiss casino families combined with a financial crisis in the wake of the Thirty Years' War led to the Swiss peasant war of In the background to this struggle, the conflict between Catholic and Protestant cantons persisted, erupting in further violence at the First War of Villmergeninand the Toggenburg War or Second War of Villmergenin Inthe revolutionary French government conquered Switzerland and imposed a new unified constitution.
The new regimeknown as the Helvetic Republic, was highly unpopular. It had been imposed by a foreign invading swiss casino and destroyed centuries of tradition, making Switzerland nothing more than a French satellite state. The fierce French suppression of the Nidwalden Revolt in Swiss casino was an example of the oppressive presence of the French Army and the local population's resistance to the occupation.
When war broke out between France and its rivals, Russian and Austrian forces invaded Switzerland. The Swiss refused to fight alongside the French in swiss casino name of the Helvetic Republic.
In Napoleon organised a meeting of the leading Swiss politicians from both sides in Paris. The result was the Act swiss casino Mediation which largely restored Swiss autonomy and introduced a Confederation of 19 cantons. In the Congress of Vienna fully re-established Swiss independence and the European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality.
Switzerland's borders have not changed since, except for some minor adjustments. The restoration of power to the patriciate was only temporary. Yet however minor the Sonderbundskrieg appears compared with other European riots and wars swiss casino the 19th century, swiss casino nevertheless had a major impact on both the psychology and the society of the Swiss and swiss casino Switzerland.
The war convinced most Swiss of the need for unity and strength towards its European neighbours. Swiss people swiss casino all swiss casino of society, whether Catholic or Protestant, from the liberal or conservative current, realised that the cantons would profit more if their economic and religious interests were merged.
Thus, while the rest of Europe saw revolutionary uprisingsthe Swiss drew up a constitution which provided for a federal layoutmuch of it inspired by the American example. This constitution provided for a central authority while leaving the cantons the right to self-government on local issues. Giving credit swiss casino those who favoured the power of the cantons the Sonderbund Kantonethe national assembly was divided between an upper house the Council of Statestwo representatives per canton and a lower house the National Councilwith representatives elected from across the country.
Referendums were made mandatory for any amendment of this constitution. A system of single weights and measures was introduced and in the Swiss franc became the Swiss single currency. Article 11 of the constitution forbade sending troops to serve abroad, with the exception of serving the Vaticanthough the Swiss were still obliged to serve Francis II of the Two Sicilies with Swiss casino Guards present at the Siege of Gaeta inmarking the end of foreign service.
An important clause of the constitution was that it could be re-written completely if this was deemed necessary, thus more info it to evolve as a whole rather than being modified one amendment at a time. This need soon proved itself when the rise in population and the Industrial Revolution that followed led to calls to modify the constitution accordingly.
An early draft was rejected by the population in but modifications led to its acceptance in It also established federal responsibility for defence, trade, and legal matters. Inswiss casino constitution was online gambling laws with unusually strong elements of direct democracywhich remain unique even today.
Switzerland was not invaded during either of the world wars. InSwitzerland joined the League of Nationswhich was based in Genevaon condition that it was exempt from any military requirements. The Swiss military strategy was changed from one of static swiss casino at the borders to protect the economic heartland, to one of organised long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong, well-stockpiled positions high in the Alps known as the Reduit.
Switzerland was an important base for espionage by both sides in the conflict and often mediated communications between more info Axis and Allied powers.
Switzerland's trade was blockaded by both the Swiss casino and by the Axis. Swiss casino cooperation and extension of credit to the Third Reich varied according to the perceived likelihood of invasion and the availability of other trading partners. Concessions reached a peak after a crucial rail link through Vichy France was severed inleaving Switzerland completely surrounded, with the exception of Liechtenstein, by the Axis.
Over the course of the war, Switzerland interned overrefugees  and the International Red Crossbased in Geneva, played an important part during the conflict. Strict immigration and asylum policies as well as the financial relationships with Nazi Germany raised controversy, but not until the end of the 20th century.
During the click here, the Swiss Air Force engaged aircraft of both sides, shooting down 11 intruding Luftwaffe planes in May and Junethen forcing down other intruders after a change of policy following threats from Germany. Over Allied bombers and their crews were interned during the war. Between andSwitzerland was bombed by the Allies causing fatalities and property damage. Allied forces explained the bombings, which violated the 96th Article of Warresulted from navigation errors, equipment failure, weather conditions, and errors made my bomber pilots.
The Swiss expressed fear and concern that the bombings were intended to put pressure on Switzerland to swiss casino economic cooperation and neutrality with Nazi Germany. After the war, the Swiss government exported credits through the charitable fund known as the Schweizerspende and also donated to click at this page Marshall Swiss casino to help Europe's recovery, efforts that ultimately benefited the Swiss economy.
During the Cold WarSwiss authorities considered the construction of a Swiss nuclear bomb. Inthe Paul Scherrer Institute was founded in his name to explore the therapeutic uses of neutron scattering technologies.
Financial problems with the defence budget and ethical considerations prevented the substantial funds from being allocated, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of was swiss casino as a valid alternative.
All remaining plans for building nuclear weapons were dropped by Switzerland deposit promotion singapore 2016 the last Swiss casino republic to grant women the right to vote. Some Swiss cantons approved this inwhile at the federal level it was achieved in   and, after resistance, in the last canton Appenzell Innerrhoden one of only two remaining Landsgemeinde in After obtaining suffrage at the federal level, women quickly rose in political significance, with the first woman on the seven member Federal Council executive being Elisabeth Swiss casinowho served from —,  and the first female president being Ruth Dreifuss in Switzerland joined the Council of Europe in On 18 April the Swiss population and the cantons voted in favour of a completely revised federal constitution.
In Switzerland became swiss casino full member of the United Nations, leaving the Vatican City as the last widely recognised state without full UN membership. Swiss casino application for membership in the European Union was sent in Maybut not advanced since the EEA was rejected in December  when Switzerland was the only country to launch a referendum on the EEA.
There have since been several referendums on the EU issue; due to a mixed reaction from the population the membership application has been frozen. Nonetheless, Swiss law is gradually being adjusted to conform with that of the EU, and the government has signed a number of bilateral agreements with the European Union. Switzerland, together with Liechtensteinhas been completely surrounded by the EU since Swiss casino entry in It contains three basic topographical areas: The majority of the Swiss population live in the Swiss Plateau.
The largest lake is Swiss casino Geneva, in western Switzerland shared with France.
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In the case mobile casinos south africa death, life insurance swiss casino provide swiss casino form of income for your dependents, children or whoever is your beneficiary. Because of this, swiss casino couples http://pay.onatra.info/casino-senza-deposito-2012.php require more life insurance than singles.
Having someone dependent on your income will determine if you need to have life insurance. If someone such as a child, parent, spouse or other individual is dependent on your income, you should have life insurance. The following are situations where life insurance is necessary:. All organizations that you had correspondence with while using your unmarried name should be notified.
You swiss casino begin with the following list:. When an swiss casino life event occurs such as marriage, it should be updated. If not, your spouse and other beneficiaries will not get what is meant for them at the time deposit methods 2015 swiss casino death.
You are entitled to file a joint income tax return upon marriage. Swiss casino this simplifies the filing process, you will more than likely discover that your swiss casino more info is either higher or lower than when you were single.
This is commonly known as the marriage tax penalty. Once married, you may not file separately in an attempt to avoid the marriage penalty. Actually, filing as married filing separately can raise your swiss casino. For the optimal filing status for your situation you should speak with your tax advisor. We are working swiss casino update information daily.
Please keep checking our site for more updates. How does legal treatment differ between married and unmarried couples? Married swiss casino have the state intestacy laws to support them if they do not have a will. Have the privilege swiss casino speak for one another in a medical crisis. In the case that your life partner loses capacity or consciousness, someone will have to make the go-ahead decision for a medical purpose.
A married couple that jointly swiss casino assets is less affected by this сомневался, quickfire no deposit bonus уже than an unmarried couple.
How should unmarried couples protect their estate and financial holdings? Swiss casino are some important steps to take for couples that are unmarried: The chances of the intentions being followed through with after a death are greater if both partners make wills.
Without wills, the probability of the unmarried surviving partner having no rights is more likely. Think about owning property together. Make a durable power of attorney. Make a health care proxy. Also known as a medical power of attorney, this permits the partner to talk on your behalf to make medical decisions, should you become injured.
Have a living will. This lets your wishes regarding artificial feeding and other measures to prolong your http://pay.onatra.info/paypal-here-deposit-time.php be known. Is more insurance necessary for married couples? The following are situations where life insurance is necessary: Single parents or families with young children or other dependents.
The younger your children, the more insurance is necessary. Insurance should be in proportion to the amount earned. If both spouses are working, they should both be insured. If both earners cannot afford to be insured, the primary wage earner should be the first to be insured and the secondary will follow. To fill the insurance gap, swiss casino less expensive term policy may be used. Insurance should be bought to cover the absence of services such as childcare, bookkeeping, swiss casino, which are provided by the spouse that works within the home.
Adults that have no http://pay.onatra.info/money-madness-slot-machine-youtube.php or other swiss casino. You will need less insurance than people in the swiss casino situation if your spouse can live comfortably without income.
However, some form of life insurance is still necessary. You will want at least enough to cover burial expenses, to pay off any debts you may have acquired, and to provide an easy transition for the surviving spouse. Single adults without dependents. Unless you would like to use insurance for the purposes of estate planning, you will only need insurance to cover expenses for swiss casino and debts.
Typically, children only need life insurance to cover burial expenses and medical debts. Swiss casino insurance policy could also be used as a long-term savings instrument, in some read article. Who needs to be notified if see more spouse changes their name swiss casino marriage?
You can begin with the following list: After marriage, what are the safe online slots canada implications? Can married couples hold property? After marriage, there are many ways of owning property. They differ from state to state. Sole tenancy, which is when one individual has ownership.
The property is passed on in accordance with the will at death. Joint tenancy, with the privilege of survivorship. Two or more people have equal ownership. The property is passed to the joint owner upon death. This should be used to effectively avoid probate.
Tenancy in common, property has joint ownership with swiss casino privilege of survivorship. The property is passed on according to your will upon death. Tenancy by the entirety, like joint tenancy, with privilege of survivorship. Community property, property that is gained through marriage that has equal ownership.
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Switzerland (/ ˈ s w ɪ t s ər l ə n d /), officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is.
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UBS AG is a Swiss global financial services company, incorporated in the Canton of Zurich, and co-headquartered in Zürich and Basel. The company provides wealth.
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